Russia is the largest producer of Pinus sibirica nuts in the world, followed by Mongolia, which produces more than 10,000 tons of nuts grown in the forest per year. Most of the crop is exported to China. Afghanistan is an important source of pine nuts, behind China and Korea. All pine trees produce pine nuts, but not all of them are harvested.
Around 18 species of pine nuts are only worth harvesting when they are ripe, as they have a larger size and better flavor than others. These trees are found in North America, Asia, and several European countries. All nuts are safe to eat, but some are very small. The preferred species of pine nuts in North America is the Colorado pine nut.
The quality also differs between these nut species. The best pine nuts are from Asia and taste sweet and buttery, but are expensive. The inner bark between the soft wood layer and the outer bark of a pine tree is also edible. Pine needles can also be eaten because they are rich in vitamin C.
Young male pine cones produce edible nuts. True pineapples take two years to mature. Pine nut shells are non-toxic and can improve physical endurance. A pineapple usually produces two nuts per flake, but it depends on the size of the pineapples.
The cost, insurance and freight price (CIF) of pine nuts represent approximately 30% of the retail price of a small package of pine nuts. Azjargal's husband and siblings spend the fall season touring the northern provinces of Khentii, Selenge, Khovsgol and Zarkhan to pick pineapples. Pine nuts, the local equivalent of popcorn or French fries, are eaten uninhibited, in a full bag, because they taste so good. The two main pine species that are most famous for their delicious edible seeds are the Chilzza pine and the Korean pine.
Many importers of pine nuts are also packers, engaged in processing, trading and wholesale distribution. Pinion pine trees are also imported to Australia and, although expensive, are of the best quality and can tolerate diseases and pests. There is concern that pine kernels should undergo a new dietary evaluation, especially since the Asian varieties used are different from the European ones. Keep in mind that the portion of the retail price paid to farmers varies greatly between producer countries.
So even Grimo, a woman who has access to a nursery full of walnut trees, doesn't cook with pine nuts as often as she'd like for the price. Being able to choose between a bag of French fries in a heated store and refrigerated pine nuts from an almost frozen street vendor, Mongols know that there is no competition. Native to the Northern Hemisphere, pine trees are an evergreen, coniferous plant and are classified within the Pinus genus of the Pinaceae family. Depending on the year and the species of pine, an individual cone contains between 50 and 100 seeds, each with a hard outer layer that encloses the grain.
As a child, in the woods of Khentii province, located northeast of Ulan Bator, on the border with Siberia, Byambaa had helped her father clean, cook and sell pine nuts for additional income. All varieties of pine seeds are available in Korea, Denmark, Switzerland, Mongolia, Russia, China and Siberia. Pine mouth syndrome is probably related to the consumption of pine nuts from Pinus armandii and Pinus massoniana, which are excluded from the UNECE standard because they are inedible. Spain, Germany and Italy are currently the largest European markets for the import of pine nuts and offer good opportunities.